The Mauryan Empire reached its peak at the time of emperor Ashoka, who converted to Buddhism
after the Battle of Kalinga.
In 2018, excavations in Lalitgiri in Odisha by archaeological survey of India revealed four monasteries
along with ancient seals and inscriptions which show cultural continuity from post-Mauryan period to 13 century CE.
The Kushan Empire under emperor Kaniṣka ruled the strongly Buddhist region of Gandhara as well as other parts of northern India, Afghanistan and .