Upāsaka (masculine) or Upāsikā (feminine) are from the Sanskrit and Pāli words for "attendant". This is the title of followers of Buddhism who are not monks, nuns, or novice monastics in a Buddhist order, and who undertake certain vows. In modern times they have a connotation of dedicated piety that is best suggested by terms such as "lay devotee" or "devout lay follower".
Buddhism has been practiced in Japan since about the 6th century CE.
Japanese Buddhism created many new Buddhist schools, and some schools are original to Japan and some are derived from Chinese Buddhist schools.
There were a broad range of reform strategies and movements which aimed at positioning Buddhism as a useful partner to a modernizing Japan.
This included clerical reform to tighten discipline as well as reforms concerning doctrine and practice.
Some Buddhists .