Buddhism has been practiced in Japan since about the 6th century CE.
Japanese Buddhism created many new Buddhist schools, and some schools are original to Japan and some are derived from Chinese Buddhist schools.
There were a broad range of reform strategies and movements which aimed at positioning Buddhism as a useful partner to a modernizing Japan.
This included clerical reform to tighten discipline as well as reforms concerning doctrine and practice.
Some Buddhists .
Buddhists pursue meditation as part of the path toward liberation from defilements (kleshas) and clinging and craving (upādāna), also called awakening, which results in the attainment of Nirvana, and includes a variety of meditation techniques such as:
- asubha bhavana ("reflections on repulsiveness")
- reflection on pratityasamutpada (dependent origination)
- sati (mindfulness) and anussati (recollections), including anapanasati (breath meditation)
- dhyana (developing an alert and luminous mind)
- the Brahma-viharas (loving-kindness and compassion)
These techniques aim to develop equanimity .