A vahalkada, known as a frontispiece in English, is a structure constructed joining a stupa at its four cardinal directions as a decorative flourish. Later, these frontispieces came to be decorated or embellished with designs such as the creeper design. Stone slabs erected for the purpose of offering flower at the stupa too have been added to these frontispieces.
Stupas, also called dagobas and cetiyas, are considered an outstanding type of architectural creation of ancient Sri Lanka.
Stupas were built in Sri Lanka soon after Devanampiya Tissa of Anuradhapura converted to Buddhism.
The first stupa to be built was the Thuparamaya. Later, many more were built over the years, some like the Jetavanaramaya in Anuradhapura, being one of the tallest ancient structures in the world.
Under the influence of Buddhism, there were several changes in .