Ngawang Lobsang Thupten Gyatso Jigdral Chokley Namgyal, abbreviated to Thubten Gyatso was the 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet, enthroned during a turbulent era and the collapse of the Qing Empire.
Referred to as "the Great Thirteenth", he is also known for redeclaring Tibet's national independence, and for his reform and modernization initiatives.
In 1878 he was recognized as the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama.
He was escorted to Lhasa and given his pre-novice vows by the Panchen Lama, Tenpai Wangchuk, and named "Ngawang Lobsang Thupten Gyatso Jigdral Chokley Namgyal".
In 1879 he was enthroned at the Potala Palace, but did not assume political power until 1895, after he had reached his maturity.
Thubten Gyatso was an intellectual reformer and skillful politician.
He was responsible for countering the British expedition to Tibet, restoring discipline in monastic life, and increasing the number of lay officials to avoid excessive power being placed in the hands of the monks.
Dalai Lama is a title given by the Tibetan people to the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest and most dominant of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
The 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso, who lives as a refugee in India. The Dalai Lama is also considered to be the successor in a line of tulkus who are believed to be incarnations .
Vajrayogini is a tantricBuddhist deity who is also called as Vajravarahi in Tantric Buddhism, or Vajrayana, a tradition in which she is considered the supreme deity more revered than any male buddha. She represents the path leading to female Buddhahood.
She is also a dakini, a term that describes a female supernatural being or an accomplished yogini, and is considered the queen of the dakinis.
Her name comes from the Sanskrit, vajra, which means “diamond” or “thunderbolt,” .