The Dalai Lamas are believed to be an exemplification of Avalokiteshvara or Chenrezig, the Bodhisattva of Compassion, and therefore the defender of Tibet. Bodhisattvas are realized beings inspired by a wish to achieve Buddhahood for the advantage of all sentient beings, who have vowed to be reborn within the world to assist humanity. His Holiness the Dalai Lama is widely known as Buddhism’s preeminent spiritual master and teacher, embodying the very best aspirations of this .
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state. Meditation has been practiced since antiquity in numerous religious traditions and beliefs. The earliest records of meditation (dhyana) are found in the Upanishads of Hindu philosophy, and meditation plays a salient role in the contemplative repertoire of Buddhism and Hinduism. Since the .
The term Nikāya Buddhism was coined by Masatoshi Nagatomi as a non-derogatory substitute for Hinayana, meaning the early Buddhist schools. Examples of these groups are pre-sectarian Buddhism and the early Buddhist schools. Early Buddhism in India is generally divided into various monastic fraternities, or nikāyas. Conventionally numbering eighteen, the actual count varied over time. The doctrinal orientation of each school differed somewhat, as did the number of piṭakas in their canon. An example of .
The first Tibetan Buddhist communities in France were established in the early 1970s. The highest-ranking head of schools to reside in France, Phendé Khenchen, established his temple of E Wam Phendé Ling in 1973. He is of the Ngor school of Buddhism. Buddhism in France's growth was catalyzed by visits, in 1975 of the Karmapa, head of the Kagyü school, Dudjom Rinpoche and Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, also very high lamas, who visited Dordogne, where .
Although it is difficult to trace the precise moment when America first became aware of Zen as a distinct form of Buddhism, the visit of Soyen Shaku, a Japanese Zen monk, to Chicago during the World Parliament of Religions in 1893 is often pointed to as an event that enhanced the profile of Zen in the Western world. It was during the late 1950s and the early 1960s that the number of Westerners other .