Tapas is a Sanskrit word that means "to heat". It also connotes certain spiritual practices in Indian religions. In Jainism, it refers to asceticism ; in Buddhism to spiritual practices including meditation and self-discipline; and in the different traditions within Hinduism it refers to a spectrum of practices ranging from asceticism, inner cleansing to self-discipline. The Tapas practice often involves solitude, and is a part of monastic practices that are believed to be a means to moksha.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
Meditation has been practiced since antiquity in numerous religious traditions and beliefs.
The earliest records of meditation (dhyana) are found in the Upanishads of Hindu philosophy, and meditation plays a salient role in the contemplative repertoire of Buddhism and Hinduism.
Since the .
The following list consists of notable concepts that are derived from Hindu and Buddhist cultures and associated traditions, which are expressed as words in Sanskrit or other Indic languages and Dravidian languages.
The main purpose of this list is to make it easy for one to find specific concepts, and to provide a guide to unique concepts of Hinduism and Buddhism all in one place.
Many Sanskrit concepts have an Indian secular meaning as well as .