Different dynasties, such as the Maurya, Satavahanas, Western Satraps, and Kushans, supported Buddhism and Jainism by building large architectural monuments such as stupas and cave complexes during their reign.
The Maurya dynasty, which existed in ancient India, was known for patronizing both Jainism and Buddhism, as well as supporting the construction of large cave complexes, stupas, and other architectural monuments. These structures were used by monastic orders during the rainy season.
After the decline of the Maurya dynasty, other dynasties such as the Satavahanas, Western Satraps, and Kushans emerged and also supported Buddhism by building large architectural monuments.
This period also saw the renovation of existing stupas and the construction of new ones, many of which were made of wood.
The Buddha and Mahavira were not depicted in human form during this time, but were represented through symbols such as huts and trees.
The art of this period, including reliefs and gateways, often depicted the cityscapes of the time, which were largely constructed of wood.
Famous cave complexes, such as those at Ajanta, also used symbols to represent the Buddha.
It is important to note the significance of various elements, such as stupas and relief structures, in representing holy figures and religious worship during the Satavahana and Kushana dynasties in ancient India.
The Kushanas, who were a Central Asian dynasty, were known for their patronage of various religions and the creation of free-standing stupas, as well as reliefs depicting stupas and modes of worship.
The video also mentions two important schools of sculpture, the Gandharan and Mathura schools, that were patronized by the Kushanas and utilized different materials and influences.
The Gandharan school had Hellenistic influences and the Mathura school used red mottled sandstone and was associated with the early sculptures of Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism.
There are signifit other monument such as two ancient structures, the Temple 17 at Sanchi and the caves at Udaygiri, in relation to the development of Hinduism and the worship of puranic deities.
Temple 17 is considered to be one of the earliest examples of a Hindu temple, with simple cubical architecture and pillars with Ashokan-style inverted lotus capitals and animal figures.
Udaygiri, which is close to Sanchi, is a set of caves built by the Guptas, which are significant for their iconic representations of Hindu and puranic gods, and the reconciliation of theories of kingship and the worship of Vishnu.
The scholar Michael Willis has written a book about the site at Udaygiri called “The Archaeology of Hindu Ritual”.
The video also mentions other early temples such as the Dashavatara temple at Deogarh, which has a cubical sanctum and relief sculptures on the outside walls that show different manifestations of the deity inside.
These temples also become manifestations of the deity themselves.