In Tibetan and Japanese Buddhism, Hayagrīva is an important deity who originated as a yaksha attendant of Avalokiteśvara or Guanyin Bodhisattva in India.
Appearing in the Vedas as two separate deities, he was assimilated into the ritual worship of early Buddhism and eventually was identified as a Wisdom King in Vajrayana Buddhism.
Avalokitasvara is the bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas.
In Sanskrit, Avalokiteśvara is also referred to as Lokeśvara ("Lord of the World").
In Tibetan, Avalokiteśvara is Chenrézig and is said to emanate as the Dalai Lama, the Karmapa and other high lamas.
An etymology of the Tibetan name Chenrézik gives the meaning of one who always looks upon all beings with the eye of compassion.
One prominent Buddhist story tells of Avalokiteśvara vowing .
A Wisdom King is a type of wrathful deity in East Asian Buddhism alsp called Vidyārājas.
Whereas the Sanskrit name is translated literally as "wisdom / knowledge king(s)," the term vidyā in Vajrayana Buddhism is also specifically used to denote mantras; the term may thus also be translated "mantra king(s)."
Vidyā is translated in Chinese with the character 明 (lit. "bright, radiant", figuratively "knowledge(able), wisdom, wise"), leading to a wide array of alternative translations such as .
Heruka, is the name of a category of wrathful deities, enlightened beings in Vajrayana Buddhism that adopt a fierce countenance to benefit sentient beings.
In East Asia, these are called Wisdom Kings.
Herukas represent the embodiment of indivisible bliss and emptiness.
They appear as Iṣṭha-devatā or meditational deities for tantric sādhanā, usually placed in a mandala and often appearing in Yab-Yum.
Heruka represents wrathful imagery with indivisible emptiness (śūnyatā), bliss, peace, wisdom, compassion (bodhicitta), and love. .
A dharmapāla is a type of wrathful god in Buddhism.
The name means "dharma protector" in Sanskrit, and the dharmapālas are also known as the Defenders of the Justice (Dharma), or the Guardians of the Law.
There are two kinds of dharmapala, Worldly Guardians (lokapala) and Wisdom Protectors (jnanapala).
Only Wisdom Protectors are enlightened beings.
In Vajrayana iconography and thangka depictions, dharmapala are fearsome beings, often with many heads, many hands, or many feet.
Vajrayana is Tantric Buddhism, the form of Northern Buddhism that relies primarily on the Tantras, technical manuals said to have been taught by the Buddha, and offer complete enlightenment in 1, 7 or 21 lifetimes.
Vajrayāna practices are connected to specific lineages in Buddhism, through the teachings of lineage holders. Others might generally refer to texts as the Buddhist Tantras. It includes practices that make use of mantras, dharanis, mudras, mandalas and the visualization of .