In the oldest texts of Buddhism, dhyāna (Sanskrit) or jhāna (Pali) is the training of the mind, commonly translated as meditation, to withdraw the mind from the automatic responses to sense-impressions, and leading to a "state of perfect equanimity and awareness (upekkhā-sati-parisuddhi)." Dhyana may have been the core practice of pre-sectarian Buddhism, in combination with several related practices which together lead to perfected mindfulness and detachment, and are fully realized with the practice of dhyana.
Buddhists pursue meditation as part of the path toward liberation from defilements (kleshas) and clinging and craving (upādāna), also called awakening, which results in the attainment of Nirvana, and includes a variety of meditation techniques such as:
- asubha bhavana ("reflections on repulsiveness")
- reflection on pratityasamutpada (dependent origination)
- sati (mindfulness) and anussati (recollections), including anapanasati (breath meditation)
- dhyana (developing an alert and luminous mind)
- the Brahma-viharas (loving-kindness and compassion)
These techniques aim to develop equanimity .
Mindfulness is the practice of purposely bringing one's attention in the present moment without evaluation, a skill one develops through meditation or other training.
Mindfulness derives from sati, a significant element of Buddhist traditions, and is based on Zen, Vipassanā, and Tibetan meditation techniques.
Though definitions and techniques of mindfulness are wide-ranging, Buddhist traditions explain what constitutes mindfulness such as how past, present and future moments arise and cease as momentary sense impressions and .
The following list consists of notable concepts that are derived from Hindu and Buddhist cultures and associated traditions, which are expressed as words in Sanskrit or other Indic languages and Dravidian languages.
The main purpose of this list is to make it easy for one to find specific concepts, and to provide a guide to unique concepts of Hinduism and Buddhism all in one place.
Many Sanskrit concepts have an Indian secular meaning as well as .