Art, Mandala

Art of Nepal – Thangkas & Paubhas

Thangkas and Paubhas

is a made by the  people of .  depict deities,  or monuments, and are used to help the practitioner meditate. The  equivalent is known as . For more than eight thousand years an artistic tradition of great skill and beauty has flourished in the valley.

As long ago as the 12th-century Newar painters, bronze casters and architects were famed across and highly sought after for their talents. The emperor Kublai Khan in distant invited them to for him. They were patronized by great and monastic institutions in .

The of their own homeland competed for their skills to enhance their palaces and .

Generation after generation, century after century, the painters of Nepal demonstrated their extraordinary . In nearly every remaining great and temple in central Tibet, the indelible print of their hand and the influence of their vision can be seen in the wonderful frescoes and breathtaking statuary.

Painting in Nepal

Traditionally, painting in Nepal is a family profession. Artistic are passed on from father to son or uncle to nephew and survival of their heritage has depended almost entirely on either royal or religious patronage. After the l8th century when the Malla dynasty in Nepal came to an end, the demand for Newar declined. The ruling Rana’s taste in art and drifted towards the West, towards secular motifs, Victorian ornaments, and sensual European statuary.

There was little demand for Newar of the traditional kind or “paubhas” as they are called. The tradition of Tibetan or religious continued, however, and those ethnic communities in the Nepalese hills whose was based on supported their own village thanka painters often sending such to spend many years in the monasteries of Tibet.

Thanka paintings depict the images of the or . They are hung in temples, monasteries, private houses and nomad tents. In Tibet, on special holy days, vast appliqué thankas are displayed in the open on hillsides, to be viewed from miles around. Used for evocation, and devotions there is great merit to be obtained by donating a thangka to a monastery or by commissioning an artist to paint one.

Using a thangka for the correct visualization of certain or can assist in protecting and purifying the , speech, and .

Thankas Canvas

Thankas used for these purposes be accurate in terms of form, color, and content. When preparing a for painting it must first be properly primed. need to be supple and the and paint have to have proper adhering qualities if they are to survive for long. Rolling and unrolling in the course of transport to the sites of from household to household and from to public viewing soon crack and damage a poorly crafted painting.

So care must be taken that the cloth on which the painting will be painted is well stretched on its hardwood frame and sized with yak or buffalo glue. Several layers of chalk white paint are applied according to the correct formula and polished often with especially smooth river stones.

Drawing the Thangkas

Only when a perfect surface has been achieved will the design of the images be mapped out. Ideally, a thangka represents divine form and balance. A should never resemble a misshapen demon and each of his emanations, each deity, and his or her retinue have not only prescribed proportions but also a predetermined place on the surface of the thangka. Drawing out the requires great skill and the measurement of body width to height, head to torso, is calculated in units – the length of a barley grain, the width of a finger and so on – balanced against the perfectly vertical and horizontal axes of the canvas.

The same rigor applies to the use of . Fine stone colors, highly prized for their luminosity, are costly and require careful grinding and preparation. Only patient work with a pestle and mortar and extraction of impurities will provide an artist with glorious sky blues, cinnabar reds, and mountain greens. Special meditations are undertaken by those well taught in mixing color, which help heighten the quality of the painter’s vision as well as that of the pigment.


Of course, recent access to commercially prepared paints has meant that many thangka painters today bypass some of the arduous processes of paint preparation.Today there has been a wonderful artistic resurgence in Nepal. Tourists, travelers and other visitors from abroad have become some of the most important sponsors of , Tamang, Newar and Thakali artists. Coming from industrialized nations, travelers recognize the and application it requires to produce these lovely paintings. And while they may not fully understand them, they are moved by the wise compassionate smiles of the Buddha images, the fearless energy of the wrathful deities and the curious birds and beasts that accompany them.


Thanka painting as Occupation

Thanka painting was traditionally an entirely male occupation. Inevitably Nepal’s recent exposure to other cultures has brought innovation. The different community has recently inaugurated a workshop for training girls.

”We can’t pretend that the 10th century and the 20th century are the same. The mentality has changed and the painting will change with it”.

There is no confusion this is true, and with new vision and inspiration, the skill that is the heritage of Nepalese artists will continue. Among the Buddhas and graceful and they are painting today, some undoubtedly rival their ancestors in the great fine art of the world and will continue to do so.


Leave a Reply

About sadiksha

Namaste! I am a Nepali Art Dealer specialized in Mandala and Thangka paintings. I love to write articles about the monastic culture of the Himalayas.

Related posts

More News