For 2,500 years Buddhists have considered with awe the achievement of Siddhartha Gautama. What induces such tremendous respect in them is not just that he gained Enlightenment, but that he did so without a teacher. Contemplating the difficulties that the Buddha had to overcome has given Buddhism a very great appreciation of the value of a spiritual teacher.
As Buddhism developed, and the three yanas unfolded, the role and significance of the spiritual teacher changed. .
Tibetan Buddhism has such a unifying symbol, known variously as a Refuge assembly, Field of Merit, or Refuge Tree. It is known as a Refuge assembly because it is a visualized gathering of figures representing the three Refuges.
It is known as a Field of Merit because by visualizing a great array of Enlightened figures and then making offerings to them, and by performing other skillful actions, such as committing oneself to the Bodhisattva path .
Avalokitesvara, the Lord of Compassion, gazes out across the world, his white radiance soothing the sufferings of living beings. With one pair of hands, he clasps to his heart the wish-fulfilling gem of his vow to eradicate the world's pain. In his upper left hand, he holds the lotus of spiritual receptivity, the desire to leave the mud of samsara and reach up toward the sun of true happiness. Above his head, we sense .
In Tibetan Buddhistcircles, it will not be long before to hear someone talk about their yidam. Especially if they have been meditating for some years you will gather from the way they talk that it is something of the greatest importance for them. This Tibetan word literally means oath, vow, or promise, and connotes the Buddhist deity to whose meditation you are committed to whom you are linked by a promise or vow, .
Another main step is to apply washes for shading and gradual transitions of tone. Shading is called Dang in Tibetan which is one of the special feature of Thangka painting.
Shading is an important feature of thankapainting, taking up a large portion of the time, and is done very carefully and precisely.
Shading in this context does not mean the treatment of light and shadow within the whole composition, for the distribution of light and dark is .
Almost every object depicted in a thangka required outlining or linear detail. Outlining proper (bead) served to set off most objects from their surroundings, and it was used to demarcate the main subdivisions within them. Tibetan painters also used line drawings to develop the form or texture inside a given area, for instance within a swirling mass of flames or within the hair of a deity.
Furthermore, fine linear drawings were the main way of .